security and safety requirements, and greater difficulty
accessing tax-exempt debt make airports less attractive
for private capital.
■ ■ OPPOSITION: Airports have been largely outgunned
on a political level by airlines, which generally stand
in opposition to PFC increases. While fee increases are
never popular, toll road and transit agencies do not
have well-capitalized companies funding opposition.
Several mechanisms being utilized by surface transport
agencies to advance projects could be used by airports.
Public-private partnerships (P3) that bring money to projects have proven difficult
for U.S. airports. FAA’s Privatization Pilot Program has had just 1. 5 successes.
Transportation suffers from the “silo effect,” where
airports, roads and rail all are planned separately
and have distinct funding programs. Where
airport and surface projects connect, however,
there are opportunities for innovation. Some
■ ■ Airports in Miami, Providence (Rhode
Island) and Chicago have used subordinate,
subsidized loans from the DOT Transportation
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